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  CLASSICS
 

The Yoga Sutras
By Patanjali


  Contents

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BOOK 2
Practice

 

1. Tapas (austerity or self-discipline), svadhyaya (repetition of sacred mantras or study of sacred literature), and Isvara-pranidhana (complete surrender to God) are Kriya Yoga (yoga in the form of action).

2. Kriya Yoga (should be practised) for bringing about samadhi and minimising the klesas (afflictions).

3. Avidya (misapprehension about the real nature of things), asmita (egoism), raga (attachment), dvesa (aversion), and abhinivesa (fear of death) are the five klesas.

4. Avidya is the breeding ground for the others whether they be dormant, attenuated, interrupted, or active.

5. Avidya consists in regarding a transient object as everlasting, an impure object as pure, misery as happiness, and the non-self as self.

6. Asmita is tantamount to the identification of Purusha or pure consciousness with buddhi.

7. Attachment is that (modification) which follows remembrance of pleasure.

8. Aversion is that (modification) which results from misery.

9. As in the ignorant so in the learned, the firmly established inborn fear of annihilation is the affliction called abhinivesa.

10. The subtle klesas are forsaken (i.e. destroyed) by the cessation of productivity (i.e. disappearance) of the mind.

11. Their means of subsistence or their gross states are avoidable by meditation.

12. Karmasaya or latent impression of action based on afflictions, becomes active in this life or in a life to come.

13. As long as klesa remains at the root, karmsaya produces three consequences in the form of birth, span of life, and experience.

14. Because of virtue and vice these (birth, span, and experience) produce pleasurable and painful experiences.

15. The discriminating persons apprehend (by analysis and anticipation) all worldly objects as sorrowful because they cause suffering in consequence, in their afflictive experiences and in their latencies, and also because of the contrary nature of the gunas (which produces changes all the time).

16. (That is why) pain which is yet to come is to be discarded.

17. Uniting the seer or the subject with the seen or the object, is the cause of that which has to be avoided.

18. The object or knowable is by nature sentient, mutable, and inert. It exists in the form of the elements and the organs, and serves the purpose of experience and emancipation.

19. Diversified (visesa), undiversified (avisesa), indicator-only (lingamatra), and that which is without any indicator (alinga), are the states of the gunas.

20. The seer is absolute knower. Although pure, modifications (of buddhi) are witnessed by him as an onlooker.

21. To serve as objective field to Purusha, is the essence or nature of the knowable.

22. Although ceasing to exist in relation to him whose purpose is fulfilled, the knowable does not cease to exist on account of being of use to others.

23. Alliance is the means of realising the true nature of the object of the knower and of the owner, the knower (i.e. the sort of alliance which contributes to the realisation of the seer and the seen is this relationship).

24. (The alliance has) avidya or nescience as its cause.

25. The absence of alliance that arises from lack of it (avidya) is the freedom and that is the state of liberation of the seer.

26. Clear and distinct (unimpaired) discriminative knowledge is the means of liberation.

27. Seven kinds of ultimate insight come to him (the yogin who has acquired discriminative enlightenment).

28. Through the practice of the different accessories to Yoga, when impurities are destroyed, there arises enlightenment culminating in discriminative enlightenment.

29. Yama (restraint), niyama (observance), asana (posture), pranayama (regulation of breath), pratyahara (withholding of senses), dharana (fixity), dhyana (meditation) and samidha (perfect concentration) are the eight means of attaining Yoga.

30. Ahimsa (non-injury), satya (truth), asteya (abstention from stealing), brahmacharya (continence) and aparigraha (abstinence from avariciousness) are the five yamas (forms of restraint).

31. These (the restraints), however, become a great vow when they become universal, being unrestricted by any consideration of class, place, time, or concept of duty.

32. Cleanliness, contentment, austerity (mental and physical discipline), svadhyaya (study of scriptures and chanting of mantras) and devotion to God are the niyamas (observances).

33. When these restraints and observances are inhibited by perverse thoughts, the opposites should be thought of.

34. Actions arising out of perverse thoughts like injury etc. are either performed by oneself, done by another, or approved; performed either through anger, greed, or delusion; and can be mild, moderate, or intense. That they are the causes of infinite misery and unending ignorance is the contrary thought.

35. As the yogin becomes established in non-injury, all beings coming near him (the yogin) cease to be hostile.

36. When truthfulness is achieved, the words (of the yogin) acquire the power of making them fruitful.

37. When non-stealing is established, all jewels present themselves (to the yogin).

38. When continence is established, virya is acquired.

39. On attaining perfection in non-acceptance, knowledge of past and future existences arises.

40. From the practice of purification, aversion towards one's own body is developed and thus aversion extends to contact with other bodies.

41. Purification of the mind, pleasantness of feeling, one-pointedness, subjugation of the senses, and ability for self-realisation are acquired.

42. From contentment, unsurpassed happiness is gained.

43. Through destruction of impurities, practice of austerities brings about perfection of the body and the organs.

44. From study and repetition of the mantras, communion with the desired deity is established.

45. From devotion to God, samadhi is attained.

46. Motionless and agreeable form (of staying) is asana (yogic posture).

47. By relaxation of effort and meditation on the infinite (asanas are perfected).

48. From that arises immunity from dvandvas or opposite conditions.

49. That (asana) having been perfected, regulation of the flow of inhalation and exhalation is pranayama (breath control).

50. That (pranayama) has external operation (vahya-vrtti), internal operation (abhyantara-vrtti), and suppression (stambha-vrtti). These, again, when observed according to space, time, and number become long and subtle.

51. The fourth pranayama transcends external and internal operations.

52. By that the veil over manifestation (of knowledge) is thinned.

53. (Moreover) the mind acquires fitness for dharana.

54. When separated from their corresponding objects, the organs follow, as it were, the nature of the mind, that is called pratyahara (restraining of the organs).

55. That brings supreme control of the organs.

 

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This page was published on Realization.org on May 19, 2000.


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